Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome

Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome

Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: An Overview and Understanding


Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a rare and severe form of childhood-onset epilepsy that presents a complex range of clinical features. Named after the two doctors who first described it in the 1950s, William G. Lennox and Henri Gastaut, this syndrome is characterized by multiple types of seizures, cognitive impairment, and a specific pattern on electroencephalogram (EEG). Understanding LGS’s key aspects is crucial to managing the syndrome effectively and improving the quality of life of affected individuals and their families.

Clinical Features

Lennox-Gastaut syndrome typically begins in early childhood, usually between the ages of 3 and 5, but can occasionally start in late infancy or early adolescence.


One of the key features of LGS is the presence of multiple types of seizures. These can include:

  1. Tonic Seizures: These are characterized by muscle stiffening and are most common during sleep.
  2. Atonic Seizures: Often called “drop attacks,” these involve a sudden loss of muscle tone, causing the individual to fall.
  3. Atypical Absence Seizures: These involve brief lapses of consciousness and can be hard to recognize as they may seem like simple daydreaming or inattention.
  4. Myoclonic Seizures: These involve sudden brief jerks of a muscle or group of muscles.

These seizures are often resistant to treatment and can significantly impact an individual’s quality of life.

Cognitive Impairment

Most individuals with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome experience cognitive impairment or developmental delays. This might include learning difficulties and delayed speech and motor skills. These impairments can be present before the onset of seizures, but seizures and anti-seizure medications can also exacerbate them.

EEG Features

The EEG of individuals with LGS often shows a specific pattern called “slow spike-wave” pattern. This pattern, characterized by waves and spikes slower than 2.5 per second, is typically seen during wakefulness and sleep and is a key diagnostic feature of the syndrome.


The causes of LGS are varied and can be divided into two categories: symptomatic and idiopathic. Symptomatic LGS is linked to known factors such as brain malformations, genetic conditions, brain injury due to lack of oxygen, or central nervous system infections. In contrast, idiopathic LGS has no identifiable cause. In many cases, despite extensive investigation, the cause of LGS remains unknown.

Management and Treatment

Managing LGS is challenging due to the multiple types of seizures involved and their resistance to treatment. The goal of treatment is to reduce the frequency and intensity of seizures and improve the quality of life. Treatment typically involves a combination of anti-epileptic drugs, ketogenic diet, surgical options, and devices such as vagus nerve stimulators.


Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a complex neurological disorder that poses considerable challenges to affected individuals and their families. Understanding the syndrome, its causes, and available treatment options is crucial in providing comprehensive care and support. Research is ongoing, and with advances in genetics and neurology, it is hoped that more effective treatments will be developed for this severe form of epilepsy.

Over mij

Martijn Benders has published twenty-six books, eighteen of which are in Dutch. Critics such as Komrij and Gerbrandy have hailed him as one of the greatest talents of his time. He has also written three philosophical works, one of which is in English and focuses on the Amanita Muscaria, the Fly Agaric. Publishing on the international platform of The Philosophical Salon, he has also gained international recognition as one of the most remarkable thinkers from the Netherlands.


There exists a considerable group of leftist individuals who vigorously opposed the prevailing coronavirus narrative, including some of the world’s leading philosophers, such as Agamben and Kacem. However, this stance was heavily censored and vilified by what is referred to as ‘neocon-left’ or ‘woke-left’, as something associated solely with what they deem ‘far-right’. In my book, I discuss the reasons behind these actions, the underlying motives, and how this is emblematic of a new form of fascism aimed at seizing power permanently.

The middle section of the book is dedicated to poetry. It features a beautiful selection of poems from the Mediterranean region, by poets from Turkey and Greece, who have been imprisoned and tortured by the regime.

The final part of my book is a manifesto against literary nihilism, as manifested in the Literature Fund. It reveals how this fund is dominated by a group of Christians and ‘wokies’, which is undesirable in a free society.

Amanita Muscaria – The Book of the Empress is an exceptional work that sets a new benchmark in the realm of mycophilosophy. While one might be tempted to classify the book within the domain of Art History, such a categorization would fail to capture its true essence. Primarily, this captivating text delves into the evolution of humankind, making it a standout in its field.

Amanita Muscaria – The Book of the Empress – De Kaneelfabriek, 2023

You don’t have time to read this, but that’s because you are no longer human. If anything remained of the original person within you, the old mycelia of childhood, you would learn a great deal from this book. In fact, its magical knowledge might become your most valuable possession. This is a book about human imagination and how it fell into the iron grip of transdimensional cockroaches. Additionally, it offers magical tips to significantly improve your life and time acceleration. M.H.H. Benders also takes a light-hearted yet scathing look at the entirety of Dutch literature. What more could you want?